M1/M2 critical role and repolarization potential in/post spinal cord injury recovery | NAVB Message Board Posts

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Msg  40541 of 40762  at  11/29/2023 8:17:31 PM  by


The following message was updated on 11/30/2023 12:22:37 AM.

M1/M2 critical role and repolarization potential in/post spinal cord injury recovery

Even though this study out of China is analyzing miRNA role in post spinal cord injury M1/M2 repolarization, it emphasizes  the critical role and therapeutic targeting potential of re polarizing M1 to M2 in post spinal injury recovery

Macrophage polarization in spinal cord injury repair and the possible role of microRNAs: A review

School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi Taiyuan, China
Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases Prevention and New Materials, Shanxi Taiyuan, China
Experimental Animal Center, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi Taiyuan, China

Received 22 March 2023, Revised 17 November 2023, Accepted 22 November 2023, Available online 27 November 2023.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e22914Get rights and content
Under a Creative Commons license
open access


The prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of spinal cord injury (SCI) have always posed significant medical challenges. After mechanical injury, disturbances in microcirculation, edema formation, and the generation of free radicals lead to additional damage, impeding effective repair processes and potentially exacerbating further dysfunction. In this context, inflammatory responses, especially the activation of macrophages, play a pivotal role. Different phenotypes of macrophages have distinct effects on inflammation. Activation of classical macrophage cells (M1) promotes inflammation, while activation of alternative macrophage cells (M2) inhibits inflammation. The polarization of macrophages is crucial for disease healing. A non-coding RNA, known as microRNA (miRNA), governs the polarization of macrophages, thereby reducing inflammation following SCI and facilitating functional recovery. This study elucidates the inflammatory response to SCI, focusing on the infiltration of immune cells, specifically macrophages. It examines their phenotype and provides an explanation of their polarization mechanisms. Finally, this paper introduces several well-known miRNAs that contribute to macrophage polarization following SCI, including miR-155, miR-130a, and miR-27 for M1 polarization, as well as miR-22, miR-146a, miR-21, miR-124, miR-223, miR-93, miR-132, and miR-34a for M2 polarization. The emphasis is placed on their potential therapeutic role in SCI by modulating macrophage polarization, as well as the present developments and obstacles of miRNA clinical therapy.

7. Conclusion

The M1 and M2 phenotypes of macrophages represent different responses to inflammation after SCI, and the M1 phenotype's long-term dominance after SCI is detrimental to recovery. On this basis, we found that some miRNA can regulate the polarization direction of M1 and M2 macrophages in SCI, reduce the number of M1-type macrophages, and increase the number, duration of presence, and distribution of M2-type macrophages, providing a therapeutic option for SCI recovery. But there is still much work to be done. For starters, a better understanding of the biological functions and targets of macrophage-associated miRNAs is required. Many miRNA functions are still unknown, and more research into the specific pathogenesis of miRNA-induced macrophage polarization is needed. Second, combining lncRNA, circRNA, and miRNA research can provide new ideas and clues for the study of macrophage polarization, as well as identify new therapeutic targets and treatments for SCI. Third, the immune response following SCI is a dynamic process, and the interaction of various immune cells should be thoroughly considered. Finally, because the majority of preclinical studies of miRNAs in SCI have been conducted in animals, more human studies are required to successfully complete clinical translation. Despite the difficulties, miRNA-based therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for future SCI treatment.





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