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Msg  10803 of 12406  at  2/7/2023 7:49:03 AM  by

JBWIN


Building IP: CELG Patent Grant "Oral Formulations Of Cytidine Analogs And Methods...

Oral Formulations Of Cytidine Analogs And Methods Of Use Thereof

DOCUMENT ID

US 11571436 B2

DATE PUBLISHED

2023-02-07

INVENTOR INFORMATION

NAME

CITY

STATE

ZIP CODE

COUNTRY

Etter; Jeffrey B.
Boulder
CO
N/A
US
Lai; Mei
Longmont
CO
N/A
US
Backstrom; Jay Thomas
Leawood
KS
N/A
US

APPLICANT INFORMATION

NAME
Celgene Corporation
CITY
Summit
STATE
NJ
ZIP CODE
N/A
COUNTRY
US
AUTHORITY
N/A
TYPE
assignee

ASSIGNEE INFORMATION

NAME
CELGENE CORPORATION
CITY
Summit
STATE
NJ
ZIP CODE
N/A
COUNTRY
US
TYPE CODE
02

APPLICATION NO

17/533033

DATE FILED

2021-11-22

DOMESTIC PRIORITY (CONTINUITY DATA)

continuation parent-doc US 16833410 20200327 ABANDONED child-doc US 17533033
continuation parent-doc US 16582779 20190925 US 10646503 20200512 child-doc US 16833410
continuation parent-doc US 16244014 20190109 US 10463683 20191105 child-doc US 16582779
continuation parent-doc US 15835088 20171207 US 10220050 20190305 child-doc US 16244014
continuation parent-doc US 14463424 20140819 ABANDONED child-doc US 14788606
continuation parent-doc US 12466213 20090514 US 8846628 20140930 child-doc US 14463424
division parent-doc US 14788606 20150630 ABANDONED child-doc US 15835088
us-provisional-application US 61157875 20090305
us-provisional-application US 61201145 20081205
us-provisional-application US 61053609 20080515

US CLASS CURRENT:

1/1

CPC CURRENT

TYPE

CPC

DATE

CPCI
2013-01-01
CPCI
2013-01-01
CPCI
2013-01-01
CPCI
2013-01-01
CPCI
2013-01-01
CPCI
2013-01-01
CPCI
2013-01-01
CPCI
2013-01-01

Abstract

The present disclosure provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising cytidine analogs for oral administration, wherein the compositions release the cytidine analog substantially in the stomach. Also provided are methods of treating diseases and disorders using the oral formulations provided herein.

Background/Summary

I. CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

(1) This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/833,410, filed Mar. 27, 2020, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/582,779, filed Sep. 25, 2019, now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 10,646,503, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/244,014, filed Jan. 9, 2019, now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 10,463,683, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/835,088, filed Dec. 7, 2017, now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 10,220,050, which is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/788,606, filed Jun. 30, 2015, now abandoned, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/463,424, filed Aug. 19, 2014, now abandoned, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/466,213, filed May 14, 2009, now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 8,846,628, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Nos. 61/053,609, filed May 15, 2008; 61/201,145, filed Dec. 5, 2008; and 61/157,875, filed Mar. 5, 2009, the contents of each of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

II. FIELD

(1) Provided herein are pharmaceutical formulations comprising cytidine analogs, or their salts, solvates, hydrates, precursors, and/or derivatives thereof, for oral administration in subjects. Also provided are methods for making the formulations and methods for using the formulations to treat diseases and disorders including cancer, disorders related to abnormal cell proliferation, hematologic disorders, and immune disorders, among others.

III. BACKGROUND

(2) Cancer is a major worldwide public health problem; in the United States alone, approximately 570,000 cancer-related deaths were expected in 2005. See, e.g., Jemal et al., CA Cancer J. Clin. 55(1):10-30 (2005). Many types of cancer have been described in the medical literature. Examples include cancer of the blood, bone, lung (e.g., non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer), colon, breast, prostate, ovary, brain, and intestine. The incidence of cancer continues to climb as the general population ages and as new forms of cancer develop. A continuing need exists for effective therapies to treat subjects with cancer.

(3) Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) refers to a diverse group of hematopoietic stem cell disorders. MDS affects approximately 40,000-50,000 people in the U.S. and 75,000-85,000 subjects in Europe. MDS may be characterized by a cellular marrow with impaired morphology and maturation (dysmyelopoiesis), peripheral blood cytopenias, and a variable risk of progression to acute leukemia, resulting from ineffective blood cell production. See, e.g., The Merck Manual 953 (17th ed. 1999); List et al., J. Clin. Oncol. 8:1424 (1990).

(4) MDS are grouped together because of the presence of dysplastic changes in one or more of the hematopoietic lineages including dysplastic changes in the myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic series. These changes result in cytopenias in one or more of the three lineages. Patients afflicted with MDS may develop complications related to anemia, neutropenia (infections), and/or thrombocytopenia (bleeding). From about 10% to about 70% of patients with MDS may develop acute leukemia. In the early stages of MDS, the main cause of cytopenias is increased programmed cell death (apoptosis). As the disease progresses and converts into leukemia, a proliferation of leukemic cells overwhelms the healthy marrow. The disease course differs, with some cases behaving as an indolent disease and others behaving aggressively with a very short clinical course that converts into an acute form of leukemia. The majority of people with higher risk MDS eventually experience bone marrow failure. Up to 50% of MDS patients succumb to complications, such as infection or bleeding, before progressing to AML.

(5) Primary and secondary MDS are defined by taking into account patients' prior history: previous treatments with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or professional exposure to toxic substances are factors delineating secondary MDS (sMDS) from primary MDS. Cytogenetically, one difference between the two groups is the complexity of abnormal karyotypes; single chromosome aberrations are typical for primary MDS, while multiple changes are more frequently seen in secondary disorders. Some drugs may have specific targets such as hydroxurea for 17p and topoisomerases inhibitors for 11q23 and 21q22. The genetic changes in the malignant cells of MDS result mainly in the loss of genetic material, including probable tumor suppressor genes.

(6) An international group of hematologists, the French-American-British (FAB) Cooperative Group, classified MDS into five subgroups, differentiating them from acute myeloid leukemia. See, e.g., The Merck Manual 954 (17th ed. 1999); Bennett J. M., et al., Ann. Intern. Med., 103(4): 620-5 (1985); and Besa E. C., Med. Clin. North Am. 76(3): 599-617 (1992). An underlying trilineage dysplastic change in the bone marrow cells of the patients is found in all subtypes. Information is available regarding the pathobiology of MDS, certain MDS classification systems, and particular methods of treating and managing MDS. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,189,740 (issued Mar. 13, 2007), which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

(7) Nucleoside analogs have been used clinically for the treatment of viral infections and cancer. Most nucleoside analogs are classified as anti-metabolites. After they enter the cell, nucleoside analogs are successively phosphorylated to nucleoside 5′-mono-phosphates, di-phosphates, and tri-phosphates.

(8) 5-Azacytidine (National Service Center designation NSC-102816; CAS Registry Number 320-67-2), also known as azacitidine, AZA, or 4-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1,3,5-triazin-2(1H)-one, is currently marketed as the drug product VIDAZA®. 5-Azacytidine is a nucleoside analog, more specifically a cytidine analog. 5-Azacytidine is an antagonist of its related natural nucleoside, cytidine. 5-Azacytidine and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (also known as decitabine, an analog of deoxycytidine) are also antagonists of deoxycytidine. A structural difference between these cytidine analogs and their related natural nucleoside is the presence of a nitrogen at position 5 of the cytosine ring in place of a carbon. 5-Azacytidine may be defined as having the molecular formula C.sub.8H.sub.12N.sub.4O.sub.5, a molecular weight of 244.21 grams per mole, and the following structure:

(9) ##STR00001##

(10) Other members of the class of cytidine analogs include, for example: 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Cytarabine or ara-C); 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine or 5-aza-CdR); pseudoisocytidine (psi ICR); 5-fluoro-2′-deoxycytidine (FCdR); 2′-deoxy-2′,2′-difluorocytidine (Gemcitabine); 5-aza-2′-deoxy-2′,2′-difluorocytidine; 5-aza-2′-deoxy-2′-fluorocytidine; 1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone (Zebularine); 2′,3′-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3′-thiacytidine (Emtriva); 2′-cyclocytidine (Ancitabine); 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-azacytosine (Fazarabine or ara-AC); 6-azacytidine (6-aza-CR); 5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (dH-aza-CR); N.sup.4-pentyloxycarbonyl-5′-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (Capecitabine); N.sup.4-octadecyl-cytarabine; and elaidic acid cytarabine.

(11) After its incorporation into replicating DNA, 5-azacytidine or 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine forms a covalent complex with DNA methyltransferases. DNA methyltransferases are responsible for de novo DNA methylation and for reproducing established methylation patterns in daughter DNA strands of replicating DNA. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferases by 5-azacytidine or 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine leads to DNA hypomethylation, thereby restoring normal functions to morphologically dysplastic, immature hematopoietic cells and cancer cells by re-expression of genes involved in normal cell cycle regulation, differentiation and death. The cytotoxic effects of these cytidine analogs cause the death of rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells, that are no longer responsive to normal cell growth control mechanisms. 5-azacytidine, unlike 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, also incorporates into RNA. The cytotoxic effects of azacitidine may result from multiple mechanisms, including inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, incorporation into RNA and DNA, and activation of DNA damage pathways.

(12) 5-Azacytidine and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine have been tested in clinical trials and showed significant anti-tumor activity, such as, for example, in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). See, e.g., Aparicio et al., Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs 3(4): 627-33 (2002). 5-Azacytidine has undergone NCI-sponsored trials for the treatment of MDS and has been approved for treating all FAB subtypes of MDS. See, e.g., Kornblith et al., J. Clin. Oncol. 20(10): 2441-2452 (2002); Silverman et al., J. Clin. Oncol. 20(10): 2429-2440 (2002). 5-Azacytidine may alter the natural course of MDS by diminishing the transformation to AML through its cytotoxic activity and its inhibition of DNA methyltransferase. In a Phase III study, 5-azacytidine administered subcutaneously significantly prolonged survival and time to AML transformation or death in subjects with higher-risk MDS. See, e.g., P. Fenaux et al., Lancet Oncol., 2009, 10(3):223-32; Silverman et al., Blood 106(11): Abstract 2526 (2005).

(13) 5-Azacytidine and other cytidine analogs are approved for subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV) administration to treat various proliferative disorders. Oral dosing of cytidine analogs would be more desirable and convenient for patients and doctors, e.g., by eliminating injection-site reactions that may occur with SC administration and/or by permitting improved patient compliance. However, oral delivery of cytidine analogs has proven difficult due to combinations of chemical instability, enzymatic instability, and/or poor permeability. For example, cytidine analogs have been considered acid labile and unstable in the acidic gastric environment. Previous attempts to develop oral dosage forms of cytidine analogs have required enteric coating of the drug core to protect the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from what was understood and accepted to be therapeutically unacceptable hydrolysis in the stomach, such that the drug is preferably absorbed in specific regions of the lower gastrointestinal tract, such as the jejunum in the small intestine. See, e.g., Sands, et al., U.S. Patent Publication No. 2004/0162263 (application Ser. No. 10/698,983). In addition, a generally accepted belief in the art has been that water leads to detrimental hydrolytic degradation of cytidine analogs during formulation, subsequently affecting the stability of the API in the dosage form. As a result, coatings applied to the drug core for prospective oral delivery of cytidine analogs have previously been limited to organic solvent-based systems to minimize exposure of the API to water.

(14) A great need remains for oral formulations and dosage forms of cytidine analogs, such as, e.g., 5-azacytidine, to potentially permit, inter alia, more advantageous dosing amounts or dosing periods; improved pharmacokinetic profiles, pharmacodynamic profiles, or safety profiles; evaluation of the benefits of long-term or maintenance therapies; development of improved treatment regimens that maximize biologic activity; use of cytidine analogs for treating new diseases or disorders; and/or other potential advantageous benefits.

IV. SUMMARY

(15) Provided herein are pharmaceutical compositions comprising cytidine analogs, wherein the compositions release the API substantially in the stomach upon oral administration. Also provided are methods for making the compositions, and methods for using the compositions to treat diseases and disorders including cancer, disorders related to abnormal cell proliferation, and hematologic disorders, among others.

(16) In certain embodiments, the cytidine analog is 5-azacytidine. In other embodiments, the cytidine analog is 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine or 5-aza-CdR). In yet other embodiments, the cytidine analog is, for example: 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Cytarabine or ara-C); pseudoisocytidine (psi ICR); 5-fluoro-2′-deoxycytidine (FCdR); 2′-deoxy-2′,2′-difluorocytidine (Gemcitabine); 5-aza-2′-deoxy-2′,2′-difluorocytidine; 5-aza-2′-deoxy-2′-fluorocytidine; 1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone (Zebularine); 2′,3′-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3′-thiacytidine (Emtriva); 2′-cyclocytidine (Ancitabine); 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-azacytosine (Fazarabine or ara-AC); 6-azacytidine (6-aza-CR); 5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (dH-aza-CR); N.sup.4-pentyloxycarbonyl-5′-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (Capecitabine); N.sup.4-octadecyl-cytarabine; elaidic acid cytarabine; or their derivatives or related analogs.

(17) Certain embodiments herein provide compositions that are single unit dosage forms comprising a cytidine analog. Certain embodiments herein provide compositions that are non-enteric-coated. Certain embodiments herein provide compositions that are tablets comprising a cytidine analog. Certain embodiments herein provide compositions that are capsules comprising a cytidine analog. The capsules may be, e.g., a hard gelatin capsule or a soft gelatin capsule; particular embodiments provide hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) capsules. In certain embodiments, the single unit dosage forms optionally further contain one or more excipients. In certain embodiments, the tablets optionally further contain one or more excipients. In other embodiments, the capsules optionally further contain one or more excipients. In certain embodiments, the composition is a tablet that effects an immediate release of the API upon oral administration. In other embodiments, the composition is a tablet that effects a controlled release of the API substantially in the stomach. In certain embodiments, the composition is a capsule that effects an immediate release of the API upon oral administration. In other embodiments, the composition is a capsule that effects a controlled release of the API substantially in the stomach. In particular embodiments, the tablet contains a drug core that comprises a cytidine analog, and optionally further contains a coating of the drug core, wherein the coating is applied to the drug core using an aqueous solvent, such as, for example, water, or non-aqueous solvent, such as, for example ethanol.

(18) Certain embodiments herein provide methods of making formulations of cytidine analogs intended for oral delivery. Further provided are articles of manufacture containing packaging material, an oral formulation of a cytidine analog, and a label that indicates that the formulation is for the treatment of certain diseases or disorders including, e.g., a cancer, a disorder related to abnormal cell proliferation, a hematologic disorder, or an immune disorder.

(19) Certain embodiments herein provide methods of using the formulations provided herein to treat diseases or disorders including, e.g., cancer, disorders related to abnormal cell proliferation, hematologic disorders, or immune disorders, among others. In certain embodiments, the formulations of cytidine analogs are orally administered to subjects in need thereof to treat a cancer or a hematological disorder, such as, for example, MDS, AML, ALL, CML, NHL, leukemia, or lymphoma; or a solid tumor, such as, for example, sarcoma, melanoma, carcinoma, or cancer of the colon, breast, ovary, gastrointestinal system, kidney, lung (e.g., non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer), testicle, prostate, pancreas or bone. In certain embodiments, the formulations of cytidine analogs are orally administered to subjects in need thereof to treat an immune disorder. In certain embodiments, the oral formulations provided herein are co-administered with one or more therapeutic agents to provide a synergistic therapeutic effect in subjects in need thereof. In certain embodiments, the oral formulations provided herein are co-administered with one or more therapeutic agents to provide a resensitization effect in subjects in need thereof. The co-administered agents may be a cancer therapeutic agent, as described herein. In certain embodiments, the co-administered agent(s) may be dosed, e.g., orally or by injection.

(20) In particular embodiments, provided herein are tablets containing 5-azacytidine and methods for making and using the tablets to treat cancer, disorders related to abnormal cell proliferation, or hematologic disorders. In certain embodiments, the tablets optionally further contain one or more excipients such as, for example, glidants, diluents, lubricants, colorants, disintegrants, granulating agents, binding agents, polymers, and/or coating agents. Examples of ingredients useful in preparing certain formulations provided herein are described in, e.g., Etter et al., U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2008/0057086 (application Ser. No. 11/849,958), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

(21) Specific embodiments herein provide, inter alia, pharmaceutical compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 5-azacytidine, wherein the composition releases the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach following oral administration to a subject. Further embodiments provide the aforementioned compositions, which: are immediate release compositions; do not have an enteric coating (i.e., are non-enteric-coated); are tablets; are capsules; further comprise an excipient selected from any excipient disclosed herein; further comprise a permeation enhancer; further comprise d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate; further comprise a permeation enhancer in the formulation at about 2% by weight relative to the total weight of the formulation; are essentially free of a cytidine deaminase inhibitor; are essentially free of tetrahydrouridine; have an amount of 5-azacytidine of at least about 40 mg; have an amount of 5-azacytidine of at least about 400 mg; have an amount of 5-azacytidine of at least about 1000 mg; achieve an area-under-the-curve value of at least about 200 ng-hr/mL following oral administration to a subject; achieve an area-under-the-curve value of at least about 400 ng-hr/mL following oral administration to a subject; achieve a maximum plasma concentration of at least about 100 ng/mL following oral administration to a subject; achieve a maximum plasma concentration of at least about 200 ng/mL following oral administration to a subject; achieve a time to maximum plasma concentration of less than about 90 minutes following oral administration to a subject; and/or achieve a time to maximum plasma concentration of less than about 60 minutes following oral administration to a subject.

(22) Specific embodiments herein provide a pharmaceutical composition for oral administration comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 5-azacytidine, which releases the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach and achieves an area-under-the-curve value of at least about 200 ng-hr/mL following oral administration.

(23) Specific embodiments herein provide a pharmaceutical composition for oral administration comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 5-azacytidine, which releases the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach and achieves an area-under-the-curve value of at least about 400 ng-hr/mL following oral administration.

(24) Specific embodiments herein provide a pharmaceutical composition for oral administration comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 5-azacytidine, which releases the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach and achieves a maximum plasma concentration of at least about 100 ng/mL following oral administration.

(25) Specific embodiments herein provide a pharmaceutical composition for oral administration comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 5-azacytidine, which releases the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach and achieves a maximum plasma concentration of at least about 200 ng/mL following oral administration.

(26) Specific embodiments herein provide a pharmaceutical composition for oral administration comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 5-azacytidine, which releases the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach and achieves a time to maximum plasma concentration of, e.g., less than about 6 hr, less than about 5 hr, less than about 4 hr, less than about 3 hr, less than about 2.5 hr, less than about 2 hr, less than about 1.5 hr, less than about 1 hr, less than about 45 min, or less than about 30 min following oral administration. In specific embodiments, the presence of food may affect (e.g., extend) the total exposure and/or time to maximum plasma concentration.

(27) Specific embodiments herein provide a pharmaceutical composition for oral administration comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 5-azacytidine, which releases the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach and achieves a time to maximum plasma concentration of less than about 60 minutes following oral administration.

(28) Specific embodiments herein provide any of the aforementioned compositions, as single unit dosage forms, tablets, or capsules.

(29) Specific embodiments herein provide, inter alia, methods for treating a subject having a disease associated with abnormal cell proliferation, comprising orally administering to the subject a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 5-azacytidine, wherein the composition releases the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach following oral administration to the subject. Further embodiments herein provide the aforementioned methods, in which: the disease is myelodysplastic syndrome; the disease is acute myelogenous leukemia; the method further comprises co-administering to the subject in need thereof an additional therapeutic agent selected from any additional therapeutic agent disclosed herein; the composition is an immediate release composition; the composition does not have an enteric coating; the composition further comprises a permeation enhancer; the composition further comprises the permeation enhancer d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate; the composition further comprises d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate in the formulation at about 2% by weight relative to the total weight of the formulation; the method further comprises not co-administering a cytidine deaminase inhibitor with the cytidine analog; the composition is a single unit dosage form; the composition is a tablet; the composition is a capsule; the composition further comprises an excipient selected from any excipient disclosed herein; the amount of 5-azacytidine is at least about 40 mg; the amount of 5-azacytidine is at least about 400 mg; the amount of 5-azacytidine is at least about 1000 mg; the method achieves an area-under-the-curve value of at least about 200 ng-hr/mL following oral administration to the subject; the method achieves an area-under-the-curve value of at least about 400 ng-hr/mL following oral administration to the subject; the method achieves a maximum plasma concentration of at least about 100 ng/mL following oral administration to the subject; the method achieves a maximum plasma concentration of at least about 200 ng/mL following oral administration to the subject; the method achieves a time to maximum plasma concentration of less than about 90 minutes following oral administration to the subject; and/or the method achieves a time to maximum plasma concentration of less than about 60 minutes following oral administration to the subject.

(30) Specific embodiments herein provide, inter alia, pharmaceutical compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 5-azacytidine, wherein the compositions are for treating a disease or disorder associated with abnormal cell proliferation, wherein the compositions are prepared for oral administration, and wherein the compositions are prepared for release of the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach. Further embodiments herein provide the aforementioned compositions, which: have an amount of 5-azacytidine of about 40 mg, about 400 mg, or about 1000 mg; are prepared to achieve an area-under-the-curve value of at least about 200 ng-hr/mL or 400 ng-hr/mL following oral administration; are prepared to achieve a maximum plasma concentration of at least about 100 ng/mL or 200 ng/mL following oral administration; are prepared to achieve a time to maximum plasma concentration of less than about 60 minutes or 90 minutes after being administered; are prepared in the form of an immediate release composition; are prepared for oral administration in combination with an additional therapeutic agent selected from any additional therapeutic agent disclosed herein; are for treating myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia; further comprise a permeation enhancer; which further comprise the permeation enhancer d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate; are single unit dosage forms; are tablets or capsules; and/or further comprise an excipient selected from any excipient disclosed herein.

(31) Specific embodiments herein provide, inter alia, uses of 5-azacytidine for the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition for treating a disease associated with abnormal cell proliferation, wherein the composition is prepared for oral administration, and wherein the composition is prepared for release of the 5-azacytidine substantially in the stomach. Further embodiments herein provide the aforementioned uses, in which: the disease is myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia; the amount of 5-azacytidine is selected from any amount disclosed herein; and/or the composition is prepared for immediate release. Further embodiments provide, inter alia, methods for treating a subject having a disease or disorder provided herein by administering a pharmaceutical compositions provided herein, wherein the treatment results in improved survival of the subject.



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