“....Our results established that RB caused direct toxic effects that suppressed the growth of tested melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In support of the anticancer properties of RB, its direct toxicity for potential anticancer therapy has been investigated through several different studies. Mousavi et al. reported that RB induces two independent mechanisms leading to cell death in melanoma cell lines—apoptotic cell death, as well as cell death through release of cathepsins into the cytosol . The ability of RB to induce direct cell death has also been studied in other types of cancers such as ovarian carcinoma cells . The in vitro results showed significant increasing levels of apoptosis in RB-treated tumor cells compared to untreated control cells with no effects on normal human fibroblasts. RB treatment in this study was not only mediated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but also induced apoptotic cell death . Dose–responsive cell death with RB treatment, associated primarily with the autophagy cell death pathway, has also been reported in colon cancer cells . Our results also showed that RB was not as effective at inhibiting cell growth of normal human fibroblasts at the same concentration that prevented the growth of melanoma cells. This is in agreement with previous studies that showed selective targeting of RB for cancer cells (melanoma, ovarian, and colon cancers), but not normal cells ....
Rose Bengal in aqueous solution showed dose-dependent antimelanoma properties in the tested cancerous cell lines. Incorporation of RB into the emulsion systems increased the antimelanoma effect of this compound in melanoma cells, with less effect on normal skin cells. The microemulsions enhanced the cellular uptake of RB compared to the aqueous solution, which could be explained by the possible efflux inhibition effect of Labrasol® present in the formulations. In addition, increased delivery of RB to deeper skin layers occurred when RB was incorporated in SEMEs containing PG, compared to an aqueous RB solution. The mechanism of cytotoxicity, investigated by flow cytometry, was shown to include induction of apoptosis, although other mechanisms could not be excluded.
We conclude that self-emulsifying microemulsion delivery systems are able to enhance the antimelanoma potency and targeted skin delivery of RB and show promise to be developed for noninvasive treatment of early stage cutaneous melanoma.” http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/12/10/947/htm
Therapeutics Research Group, University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
Therapeutics Research Centre, Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Medical Research, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, SA 5011, Australia